Pediatric severe asthma refers to a type of asthma that occurs in children and is characterized by symptoms. That are difficult to control despite the use of appropriate asthma medications. In the case of pediatric severe asthma. Asthma symptoms are usually more frequent, severe, and persistent compared to mild or moderate asthma. Children with such asthma may experience symptoms that interfere with their daily activities, sleep, and quality of life. They may also require frequent use of rescue medications, such as short-acting bronchodilators, and may have recurrent asthma exacerbations or attacks. That require emergency medical care.
There has been research going on worldwide to better understand the mechanism of pediatric severe asthma. It is noteworthy that eminent researchers from across the globe, such. As Dr. Amarjit Mishra Ex-Assistant Professor, Auburn University, USA is working tirelessly to understand the root cause of pediatric asthma to find out potential treatments for it. In this article, let us understand about pediatric severe asthma and know what are the potential novel therapies for it.
The mechanism behind Pediatric Severe Asthma
The exact mechanism of pediatric severe asthma is not fully understood. But it is believed to involve a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and immunological factors that contribute to the chronic inflammation and hyper-responsiveness of the airways, leading to asthma symptoms. In some of the children with severe asthma, the airways are chronically inflamed. Which leads to swelling and increased production of mucus.
This inflammation can result from an overactive immune response to various triggers, such. As allergens, irritants (e.g., smoke, pollution), or respiratory infections. While in some other Children with severe asthma. The airways are found to be hyper-responsive to triggers, leading to exaggerated bronchoconstriction in response to these triggers. This can result in increased difficulty in breathing and worsened asthma symptoms.
According to Amarjit Mishra, in some cases of severe asthma. There is chronic inflammation and repeated episodes of bronchoconstriction which leads to structural changes in the airway tissues, such as thickening of the airway walls and hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells. These changes can further contribute to airway narrowing and decreased lung function. Children with severe asthma also were found to exhibit dysregulation of their immune response, with. An imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes in the airways. This can lead to sustained inflammation and difficulty in achieving asthma control.
Current Treatment Options
The current treatment regimen for pediatric severe asthma may involve a combination of controller medications, such. As inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting bronchodilators, and other anti-inflammatory medications, as well as avoidance of triggers that can worsen asthma symptoms. In some cases, children with severe asthma may require additional therapies, such. As oral corticosteroids, biologic agents, or other advanced treatment options, to achieve optimal asthma control. Due to the sensitivity of the disease and vulnerability of young children, the management of pediatric severe asthma typically requires close monitoring by a healthcare professional, regular follow-up appointments, and ongoing adjustments to the treatment plan as needed. Hence the process becomes cumbersome and there is a need to identify novel therapy options.
Potential Novel Therapies
There are numerous potential novel therapies that are currently being researched and evaluated for the treatment of pediatric severe asthma. These therapies aim to target specific mechanisms involved in the disease process, and may offer. New options for improving asthma control in children who do not respond well to traditional asthma treatments. Some potential novel therapies for pediatric severe asthma include anti-inflammatory or small molecule inhibitors. Biologic agents are a class of medications that specifically target certain immune pathways involved in asthma. These medications are usually administered through injections or infusions, and they can help reduce inflammation and improve asthma control. Examples of biological agents. They have been approved for severe asthma in adults and are currently being studied for pediatric use include omalizumab, mepolizumab, reslizumab, and benralizumab. These medications target specific immune molecules, such. As immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-5 (IL-5), and interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R), which play key roles in the inflammatory process in asthma. Amarjit Mishra ex-Assitant Professor is conducting pioneer work on studying the role of these biologic agents in severe asthma.
Small molecule inhibitors are another type of medication that are being investigated for the treatment of severe asthma. These medications work by targeting specific enzymes or signaling pathways that are involved in airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction. For example, certain inhibitors of enzymes such. As Janus kinase (JAK) or phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) are being studied for their potential to reduce inflammation and improve asthma control. Amarjit Mishra Auburn University, being an expert in pulmonology holds a view. That these inhibitors can also be used as potential targets for the treatment of severe asthma.
Other therapy options may include gene therapy and even lung microbiome modulation. Gene therapies involve altering or modifying specific genes to target underlying genetic factors that contribute to severe asthma. While still in early stages of research, gene therapies hold promise. As potential treatments for severe asthma, including pediatric severe asthma. Gene editing techniques, such as CRISPR-Cas9, could potentially be used to correct genetic mutations associated with asthma. While gene expression modulation techniques may be used to regulate the expression of specific genes involved in asthma. Further, emerging evidence suggests. That the composition of the lung microbiome or diverse community of microorganisms that reside in the respiratory tract may play a role in asthma pathogenesis. Modulating the lung microbiome through interventions such. As probiotics, prebiotics, or faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may represent a novel approach for managing severe asthma in children.
It is important to note that these potential novel therapies are still being investigated in clinical trials and are not yet. Widely available for routine clinical use in pediatric severe asthma. Further research is conducted by great scientists such. As Amarjit Mishra to determine their safety, efficacy, and long-term effects of such therapy options. As with any medical treatment, decisions on the use of novel therapies should be made in consultation with qualified healthcare. professionals and based on the individual needs and characteristics of each patient.